مأخوذ من كلام العلامة ابن رشد الحفيد القرطبي في كتابه المشهور "بداية المجتهد" في فقه المذاهب الأربعة وأهل السنة
A Translation From the Bidāyat al-Mujtahid of Ibn Rushd al-Hafīd al-Qurṭubī, An Authoritative Manual on the Fiqhof the Four Madhhabsand the People of the Sunnah
Translated by Ḥamzah wald Maqbūl
[The people of knowledge] have differed about [what to do] when the ʿīd and the Friday fall on the same day: would the ʿīd [prayer] suffice [one who prayed it] in place of the Friday prayer? A group [of the people of knowledge] said: “The ʿīd [prayer] suffices [one who prayed it] in place of the Friday [prayer], and such a person is not obligated to pray [after the ʿīd prayer, anything] except ʿAṣr.” This is the opinion of ʿAṭā’, and it has been attributed to Ibn Zubayrtand ʿAlīt [may Allah be well pleased with them].
[Another] group said, “This is a dispensation meant for Bedouin nomads who come especially to a metropolis only for ʿīd and the Friday prayer.” This is in accord with what has been attributed to Sayyidunā ʿUthmān, [may Allāh be well pleased with him,] that he gave the khuṭbah of ʿīd on a Friday, then said, “Whoever of the people of ʿĀliyah wishes to await the Friday prayer, let him wait; whoever wishes to return, let him return.”
[This] was narrated by Mālik in the Muwaṭṭa’, and similar has been attributed to ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz, and Shāfiʿī has chosen it [as his fatwā, may Allāh have mercy upon them all].
واختلفوا إذا اجتمع في يوم واحد عيد، وجمعة، هل يجزئ العيد عن الجمعة؟ فقال قوم: يجزئ العيد عن الجمعة، وليس عليه في ذلك اليوم إلا العصر فقط، وبه قال عطاء، وروي ذلك عن ابن الزبير، وعلي.
وقال قوم:هذه رخصة لاهل البوادي الذين يردون الامصار للعيد والجمعة خاصة.كما روي عن عثمان أنه خطب في يوم عيد وجمعة فقال: من أحب من أهل العالية أن ينتظر الجمعة، فلينتظر، ومن أحب أن يرجع، فليرجع
رواهمالك في الموطأ وروي نحوه عن عمر بن عبد العزيز، وبه قال الشافعي.
Mālik and Abū Hanīfah said, when ʿīd and Friday coincide, a legally responsible person is expected to perform both: ʿīd because it is a sunnah, and the Friday prayer, because it is obligatory. [They maintain that] neither one takes the place of the other; this is the default assumption that is to be taken, unless there is some [explicit] legislation to the contrary which [is so strong that one] is obliged to change [one’s opinion] to it.
Those who take the opinion of [Sayyidunā] ʿUthmān [do so] because it is a matter that one cannot deduce by mere opinion; rather [according to them], it can be nothing other than [a fatwā] in accordance [to the sunnah]. [Also] it is not totally outside the bounds of the default state [of the sharīʿah,as it still has most people obliged to pray the Friday prayer].
As for dropping the obligatory ẓuhr and Friday prayers, which would be dropped in the place of the ʿīd prayer, this would be very much against the default state [of the rulings of the sharīʿah and has no weight] unless there is some explicit legislation to the contrary, which [is so strong that one] is obliged to follow it.[The scholars of this opinion further] differed about one who missed the ʿīd prayer with the Imām. A group said that he should pray four [rakaʿāt]. This is the opinion of [Imāms] Aḥmad and [Sufyān] al-Thawrī. It is also attributed to [ʿAbdullāh] ibn Masʿūd.
وقال مالك وأبو حنيفة: إذا اجتمع عيد، وجمعة، فالمكلف مخاطب بهما جميعا العيد على أنه سنة، والجمعةعلى أنها فرض، ولا ينوب أحدهما عن الاخر وهذا هو الاصل إلا أن يثبت في ذلك شرع يجب المصير إليه.
ومن تمسك بقول عثمان، فلانه رأي أن مثل ذلك ليس هو بالرأي وإنما هو توفيق وليس هو بخارج عن الاصول كل الخروج.
وأما إسقاط فرض الظهر والجمعة التي هي بدله لمكان صلاة العيد فخارج عنالاصول جدا، إلا أن يثبت في ذلك شرع يجب المصير إليه.
واختلفوا فيمن تفوته صلاة العيد مع الامام، فقال قوم يصلي أربعا، وبه قال أحمد والثوري وهو مروي عن ابن مسعود.
A group of them said that [such a person] should make up [the ʿīd prayer], praying it like the ʿīdprayer is prayed: two rakaʿāt in which one makes the takbīrs just as one would do so in the ʿīd prayer, and one recites out loud just as one would do so in it. This is the opinion of Shāfiʿī, [may Allah have mercy on him], and Abū Thawr.
[Another] group of them said that he should just pray two [normal] rakaʿāt, in which he neither recites out loud, nor makes any of the [extra] takbīrsof the ʿīd prayer.
[Yet another] group of them said that if the Imām has prayed in the same place [that the one who missed the prayer is praying], then he should pray two rakaʿāt; if he is praying in a place other than the muṣallā [of the Imām], then he makes up four rakaʿāt.
[And yet another] group of them said that he is basically neither obliged to [nor is he able to] make up [the ʿīd] prayer. This is the fatwā of Mālik and his companions. [The great third century mujtahid] Ibn al-Mundhir [also] relates [from Mālik] an opinion similar to that of Shāfiʿī [may Allah have mercy on them all].
As for those who said that [he must make up] four [rakaʿāt], he has made it [i.e. the ʿīd prayer] the equivalent to the Friday prayer. This is a weak comparison.
وقال قوم: بل يقضيها على صفة صلاة الإمام ركعتين يكبر فيهما نحو تكبيره، ويجهر كجهره، وبه قال الشافعي، وأبو ثور
وقال قوم: بل ركعتين فقط لا يجهر فيهما ولا يكبر تكبير العيد
وقال قوم: إن صلى الامام في المصلّى صلّى ركعتين، وإن صلى في غير المصلّى صلّى أربع ركعات
وقال قوم: لا قضاء عليه أصلا، وهو قول مالك وأصحابه وحكى ابن المنذر عنه مثل قول الشافعي.
فمن قال: أربعا شبهها بصلاة الجمعة، وهو تشبيه ضعيف،
Those who said that [he must make up] two rakaʿāt in the way that the Imām prayed them go towards the position that the default state is that a make-up prayer should be performed in the manner of the prayer missed.
Those who said that [the ʿīd prayer] cannot be made up, [say so] because it is a prayer [whose validity] is conditioned on [the presence of] the congregation and the Imām, similar to the Friday prayer. For this reason one is not obliged to make it up through two or four rakaʿāt, as [even if he prayed them] they wouldn’t mean anything [as a true replacement to the ʿid prayer]. These two rulings are the ones in which there is a [valid] difference of opinion, by which I mean the opinions of Mālik and Shāfiʿī.
As for the rest of the rulings [mentioned] on this issue, they are weak, and meaningless, because the Friday prayer replaces, [however is different from] ẓuhr, and these [four rakaʿāt] don’t seem to stand in the place of anything, [in that they are prayed before the time of ẓuhr, thus cannot be considered ẓuhr, and since they are four, they don’t even resemble ʿīd or the Friday prayer. This being so,] how can one construct the analogy of one to the other for the purposes of making the prayer up?
In reality even one who misses the Friday prayer and then prays ẓuhr, isn’t making up the Friday prayer, as one cannot stand [equally] in the place of the other. Rather he is [only] praying [his normal] ẓuhras an [inferior] replacement for it, [i.e. the Friday prayer] which he missed, and which was obligatory upon him.
And Allāh is the One who gives the ability to find that which is correct.[i]
ومن قال: ركعتين، كما صلاهما الامام، فمصيرا إلى أن الاصل هو أن القضاء يجب أن يكون على صفة الاداء،
ومن منع القضاء، فلانه رأى أنها صلاة من شرطها الجماعة والامام - كالجمعة - فلم يجب قضاؤها ركعتين، ولا أربعا إذ ليست هي بدلا من شئ،
وهذان القولان، هما اللذان يتردد فيهما النظر: أعني قول الشافعي، وقول مالك.
وأما سائر الاقاويل في ذلك فضعيف لا معنى له، لان صلاة الجمعة بدل من الظهر،وهذهليست بدلا من شئ، فكيف يجب أن تقاس إحداهما على الاخرى في القضاء؟
وعلى الحقيقة، فليس من فاتته الجمعة، فصلاتهالظهرقضاء، بل هي أداء، لانه إذا فاته البدل، وجبت هي، والله الموفق للصواب.
ʿĀliyah here is a reference to ʿAwālī, an area outside of the city of Madīnah which extends from the border of the city, to about three miles out. The people of ʿAwālī were expected to come to the city for the Friday prayer, except that SayyidunāʿUthmān exempted them from having to do so, if they prayed ʿīd on a Friday in Madīnah (al-Bājī, al-Muntaqā).
Note that Shāfiʿī’s opinion is that missing the Friday prayer after having prayed ʿīd is a dispensation for Bedouins like the people of ʿAwālī only, and not those who actually live in the city.
It is a sunnah mu’akkadah according to the most correct fatwā of Mālik (Khalīl, al-Mukhtasar), and wājib according to Abū Hanīfah (Qudūri, al-Mukhtasar)
Note that the Hanafīs, Mālikis and Shāfiʿīs are unanimous that residents of the city are obliged to pray both the ʿīd and Friday prayers. This is the preponderant majority opinion of the people of the sunnah.
Please see endnote i at the end of this paper.
Abu Hanīfah and Mālik both have the same opinion.
Note that by this tract further Ibn Rushd emphatically restates his opinion that the ʿīd prayer logically cannot replace the Friday prayer.
[i]Ibn Rushd was considered to be a master of the rational sciences. It is for this reason that he digests the fiqh of the four madhhabs and the people of the sunnah from a mostly rationalist perspective. It is from this perspective that he dismisses as baseless the opinion that the ʿīd prayer can obviate the obligation of, or substitute for the Friday prayer.
As for one who would say that there are ḥadīths that indicate that the messenger of Allāh ﷺ, allowed the people to
(a) skip the Friday prayer, after having prayed the ʿīd prayer,
or that his blessed ḥadīths indicate that
(b) the Friday prayer can be validly prayed in the time between after sunrise and noon, thus making the ʿīd prayer, which consists of two rakaʿāt and a khuṭbah, effectively into a valid Friday prayer; the response is as follows.
The obligation of praying the Friday prayer, as well as the valid discharge of the obligation of praying the Friday prayer in the time of ẓuhris established by tawātur, meaning that it comes through so many narrations and other channels that there is no denying or questioning their validity. One who does so is deemed to be outside of the pale of Islam. This is a point on which all of the people of thesunnah agree.
If one wishes to modify either these two points they must either bring some kind of rational proof, which would be admissible as long as no ḥadīth is explicitly contrary to it; or they must bring a ḥadīthor narration that is at least as strong as those ḥadīths or narrations about the default rulings regarding the Friday prayer and its timings that they break (a) or modify (b).
Ibn Rushd is methodical in showing that a rational proof is not forthcoming. He also maintains, as do the Ḥanafīs, Mālikīs, Shāfiʿīs that there is no ḥadīth which is strong enough to prove the validity of breaking or changing the default rulings regarding the Friday prayers and its timings. This is what he means when he says “… unless there is some explicit legislation to the contrary, which [is so strong that one] is obliged to follow it.” (next column)
The Ḥanbalīs don’t claim any rational backing for (a) or (b), rather they bring some ḥadīths and narrations which they feel fulfill the conditions necessary to either break or modify the default rulings about the Friday prayer and its timings. It is for this reason that the People of the Sunnah hold that the views of the Ḥanbalīs regarding this issue are a valid difference of opinion, despite the majority of Sunni scholarship not accepting them as correct.
My reason for preparing this tract was not to categorically claim that the Ḥanbalī opinion is totally baseless; rather I notice that the average Muslim in my area seems to be under the false impression that the Ḥanbalī opinion is the only one, and that all others are incorrect. This is not only untrue, but it also ignores the fact that the obligation of praying both the ʿīd and Friday prayers is established by the rulings of the overwhelming majority of the scholars of Islam throughout the ages.
For further reading on the Ḥanbalī basis for the validity of not praying the Friday prayer after praying the ʿīdprayer, please see al-Mughnīof Ibn Qudāmah al-Maqdisī.